Below is an annotated bibliography of articles, books, and web sites
I used while gathering information for this project:
- This brief article describes the abundance of new portable MP3 players
by various companies at the Comdex convention. The convention took place
in Las Vegas, Nevada on November 16, 1999. Of special interest is the new
player made by Sony which will have safety features built into its storage
card that disallow a user to store songs that have not been copyrighted.
- In his classic article, Barlow argues that with the digitization of
information the use of copyright is not appropriate or possible. This is
because copyright is designed to protect the physical aspect of information,
the container in which the information is held. The ideas themselves are
not protected. "In other words," he says, "the bottle [is]
protected, not the wine." In cyberspace, these containers are no longer
present. Barlow, as a solution, wishes that eventually, copyright law will
no longer exist. Instead we will have an entirely new model to fit our
entirely new situation.
- Bello compares the new digital music industry to the established online
adult entertainment industry and finds them to be quite similar. He explores
how the adult entertainment industry deals with the highly organized piracy
operations that have developed around it. Perhaps, he suggests, the music
industry could borrow some of the stratagies that enable adult sites to
make money in spite of piracy problems.
- From the journal whose audience is people in the music industry, Bello
interviews one of these people. Goodnoise (now Emusic) is a successful
website that sells digital music. Bello asks Hoffman questions primarily
concerning security features such as SDMI and the future of record labels,
especially major labels. Hoffman speaks out against SDMI and tells how
record labels will to improve because of MP3 technology.
- In an informative interview for those in the music industry in which
four "experts" speak from different view points in the industry.
They make and support claims about SDMI. Specifically, Bello asks if SDMI
is too restrictive a method of distribution, what its value to consumers
is, and if it is even effective. Each of these men give different answers;
the reader gets a summary of four different perspectives from four people
who have different values.
- This part of the MP3 Impact website gives explicit information
for people in the industry about MP3. It does npot go into as much detail
as it might, but it is good for getting a basic understanding. It is broken
up into three sections: MPEG name game which describes the different types
of MP3 files, Secure MP3 Option, which goes into more detail about secure
MP3, and Download Channels, which lists and gives information and URL's
about the different ways MP3 is available for download.
- Bettig, Ronald V. Copyrighting Cuture:
The Political Economy of Intellectual Property. Colorado: Westview,
- Bettig, an assistant professor of communication at The Pennsylvania
State Unversity, gives a careful and well argued Marxist analysis of the
ubiquitous role of capitalism in the development and implemantation of
copyright law both in the U.S. and internationally. His focuses mainly
on the film industry, using it as an archetype for big business as a whole.
Overall, he argues that the copyright owners are major corporations. These
corportions use copyright to increase their power and wealth. As a result,
they have much influence in the making of new or revised copyright laws.
Of special interest is the final chapter, "Intellectual Property and
the Politics of Resistence," in which, using the voice of a "Marxist
optimist," Bettig describes "various forms of political resistence
within or agianst the instituion of intellectual property" (235).
Drawing from this and other sources throughout this project, I call these
- This is a brief interview with Chuck D. The interviewer asks general
questions about Chuck D posting songs on the web without permission; his
opinion of SDMI, piracy, and the future of the music industry; and the
upcoming Public Enemy superstation.
- Elkin-Koren discusses one of the alternatives to copyright that seems
to be growing in popularity: contract law. One specific example of contract
law, which is being used by software companies, is a "shrinkwrap license"
the terms of which a comsumer agrees to whenever the package is opened
or the software is installed. Elkin-Koren argues against such contracts
claiming that they upset the "delicate balance" that copyright
has created between copyright holders and consumers. Specifically, she
looks at the case of ProCD, Inc. v. Zeidenberg.
- Goodman, Fred. "Is MP3 the End of
the Music Business?" Rolling Stone. 809: (April 1, 1999). p.
- Goodman discusses the controversy surrounding MP3. He speaks with Micheal
Robertson of MP3.com and others about why artists might like to use the
MP3 medium. He gives highlights the debate surrounding the copyright problems
that MP3 causes by talking to others in the industry and getting their
- This well written article is an indepth examination of the different
challenges that intellectual property law now faces with the advent of
digital technology. One of these is digital music, which is the primary
topic of section
two. In all sections he discusses the arguments of the two extreme
sides: those who want to eliminate copyright alltogether, and those who
wish to strengthen and expand copyright laws. Also, Mann gives a history
of copyright law, and explains the connection between copyright and democracy.
- Parker, Dana C. "The RIAA and MP3:
In Search of a Clue." EMedia
Professional. 12:4. (April 1999) p. 96.
- Parker argues that the RIAA should stop fighting against MP3 technology
and instead find a way to use it to their advantage.
- Here the RIAA gives the public a brief description of what ISRC is
and how you can register to get it. Also, they state some reasons about
why they feel it is necessary and what purpose it serves.
- Read what the RIAA wants people to believe about MP3. RIAA express
thier concern about the artists' rights and looks forward to the day when
MP3 has the proper security features so that these rights will be honored.
- RIAA's commentary and perspective on the probelm of piracy on the Internet.
While reading this one can see that they are entirely opposed to music
on the Internet, strongly suggesting to the reader that all Internet music
files, including MP3, are illegal.
- This page in the RIAA website contains a brief overview of the legal
battles between RIAA and Diamond Multimedia. As of November 1999 this page
has not been updated to include the settlement.
- In this brief article, Robinson reports on the development of SDMI
specifications, serial numbers, and efforts to get arund them. She shows
concern as to how these measures will effect consumers.
- This review of copyright law with links to the author's annotations
of the laws. This is linked to by the open education class "Alternatives to Intellectual
Property" taught at the Harvard Law School.
- Starrett, Robert A. "RIAA loses bid
for injunction to stop sale of Diamond Multimedia RIO MP3 Player; appeal
pending." EMedia Professional.
12:1. (January 1999). p.8-10.
- A news brief that explains why the RIAA could not stop Diamond Multimedia
from selling the RIO Player. In short, because one cannot use the RIO Player
to recored the MP3 file onto any other format, it is not in violation of
the Audio Home Recording Act. Starrett exlains what the RIO Player is,
presents the arguments of both sides, and concludes with the Judge's decision.
- This article serves as a good introduction to trusted systems. Stefik
argues that trusted systems have the ability to give the Internet browsing
world higher quality information at a lower cost. Specifically, trusted
systems give the information provider some assurance that whatever they
post in the Internet will be safe from pirates and other do-gooders. Systems
discussed include encryption and challenge-response protocols.
- This brief article describes the settlement of the lawsuit and countersuit
between the Recording Industy Association of America, the Alliance of Artists
and Recording Companies, and Diamond Multimedia, the maker of the Rio MP300
player. Taylor gives the basic claims initially made by both sides. The
specific terms of the settlement are not given, but the reader gets the
idea: the Rio has joined SDMI, and so will soon have SDMI's security features
built into the player.
- Actually, there are 11 things listed. This informative list is great
because it is completely objective. Because of his affiliation with the
EFF one might expect a bias, but Templeton simply informs the reader of
what the law states. He does offer some things to think about, but these
are not extreme or meant to argue for any particular position.
- This is exactly what it says. A good resource. Even better, though,
are the links to other copyright resources at the top of the page.