Nancy Vlahakis


Users: A wide range of ages and knowledge of the field.
Basis: This database will be made accessible on the Internet. Moreover, being one of the largest collections of musical instruments in the U.S. makes it an important collection.
Goal: To be an educational and a scholarly resource.
Basis: It is to be part of the Chico project, which is geared toward grades k-12 so it must be educational. Also it is a university resource, so it should be appropriate for scholarly use as well.


Contains contextual as well as descriptive information on the instruments. Contextual in that it has fields for original function of instrument such as ritual, social, etc, male or female primary player, and in what kind of environment.
The database provides a rigorous list of descriptive elements: literally the what, where, when, and how of the instrument.
A remarks field is also available for a more prose-like description to satisfy the request of the cataloguer as a means of expounding on the info in the fields, and to offer the user a varied format.
Provides full cataloging info such as provenance, and documentation available for each instrument such as accession no., location of instru. whether on display, in storage, or on loan and to whom.
Provides user features such as multimedia objects of the instruments (images, sound/video); and pointers from technical fields to laymen's terms: such as in the classification of instruments (aero: horns, flutes, reeds; chordo: stringed; electro: electric; idio: bells, gongs, rattles; membrano: drums).

The Database

I am investigating ways to link the SGML files to the FoxPro database at the School of Music so that the updated information is received into the SGML format providing consistency and accuracy of information.

Further components of the project comprise script writing to perform searches from Internet browsers. To that end I will be exploring PAT (which converts the SGML into HTML on the fly to deliver it to the viewer's browser yet enables the user to do extensive searches) and I will be further exploring the SGML browser Panorama, which has a free but limited downloadable version on the Net.

I will also develop forms written in HTML for the Web site to facilitate searching with pull-down menus using much of the controlled vocabulary providing laypeople's terms where appropriate.

It has been advised that the number codes found in the present database are more useful than converting those numbers to text because processing numeric information is faster. I will be investigating these logistics via script writing.

One final issue is how to deal with the lack of consistent data entry in the present database spanning about 2,400 entries. One solution is to make a majority of the elements optional. This is not as desirable because forcing cataloguers to use the structure will help to ensure complete and consistent information--at least in the future. It is unrealistic, and for some cases impossible, to go back and recover the missing information in what has already been done. It would be valuable to at least put the information that is there in a consistent order vis-a-vis the SGML occurrence features of "optional" (a "?") but "in this order" (a ",").

I will be further expanding and revising the controlled vocabulary as discussions proceed with the ethnomusicologist working on the Stearns Collection. I also need to add more information in the DTD object notations.

Musical Instrument DTD

!DOCTYPE database  SYSTEM  "database DTD"
!-- This database is for a collection of musical instruments. It was developed by Nancy
Vlahakis (c) 1995. Last revision date: 1995-11-08--

!ENTITY % name "lname, fname" 

!ELEMENT database - - (entry)+  
!ELEMENT entry - - (control, prov, desc, docu, obj) 
	!ELEMENT control - - (instrName, idno, lastdate, update) 
		!ELEMENT instrName - - ((engl, orig) | ptr) 
			!ATTLIST orig
				lang IDREF #IMPLIED 
			!ATTLIST ptr
				id ID #IMPLIED 
		!ELEMENT IDNO - - (#PCDATA) --accession no.-- 
		!ELEMENT lastdate - - (#PCDATA) -- date of last data entry -- 
		!ELEMENT update - - (#PCDATA) -- field that was updated -- 

See "prov" below.

	!ELEMENT prov - - (provType, acqdate) 
		!ELEMENT provType - - (donor | seller)  
			!ELEMENT donor - - (name | orgname)* 
			!ELEMENT seller - - (name | orgname)* 
		!ELEMENT acqdate - - (#PCDATA | unknown) -- yyyymmmdd -- 

See "desc" below.

	!ELEMENT desc - - (crdate, creator, origin, class, sound, physDesc) 
		!ELEMENT crdate - - (year, type, ptr) -- date of instrument creation, point 				to gen. Western periods of time -- 
		!ELEMENT creator - - (name | unknown) 
		!ELEMENT origin - - (#PCDATA) -- use country no. codes in Malm db -- 
		!ELEMENT class - - (#PCDATA | ptr) -- ptr to laymen's terms -- 
		!ELEMENT sound - - (ptchRnge, perfTech) 
			!ELEMENT ptchRnge - - (nonPtch | pcu) --pitch changing units-- 
			!ELEMENT perfTech - - (#PCDATA) --use CV-- 
		!ELEMENT physDesc - - (constrct, dimen, compont, decor, conditn) 
			!ELEMENT constrct - - (materls, technic) 
				!ELEMENT materls - - (matType, extent)* 
					!ELEMENT matType - - (#PCDATA) --use CV-- 
					!ELEMENT extent - - (#PCDATA) --use CV-- 
				!ELEMENT technic - - (#PCDATA) --use CV-- 
	!ELEMENT dimen - - (#PCDATA) 
	!ELEMENT cmponent - - (#PCDATA) 
	!ELEMENT decor - - (#PCDATA) --use CV--  
	!ELEMENT conditn - - (#PCDATA) --use CV-- 

See "context" below.

!ELEMENT context - - (playerNo, place, function, gender, timeUse) 
	!ELEMENT playerNo - - (#PCDATA) --use CV-- 
	!ELEMENT place - - (#PCDATA) --use CV-- 
	!ELEMENT function - - (#PCDATA) --use CV-- 
	!ELEMENT gender - - (#PCDATA) --use CV-- 
	!ELEMENT timeUse - - (#PCDATA) --use CV-- 

See "docu" below.

!ELEMENT docu - - (instrLoc, docuType, docuLoc) 
	!ELEMENT instrLoc - - (exhib | storage | on_loan) 
		!ELEMENT exhib - - (case, level) 
		!ELEMENT storage - - (shlfNo) 
		!ELEMENT on_loan - - (name, addr) 
	!ELEMENT docuType - - (slides?, photos?, artRepro?, techSket?, videos?, sound?, hologram?) 
	!ELEMENT  docuLoc - - (#PCDATA) --possible locations?-- 

See "obj" below.

!ELEMENT obj - - (img | sound | video)* 
			!ELEMENT img - 0 (EMPTY) 
			!ATTLIST img
				src CDATA 
			!ELEMENT sound - 0 (EMPTY) 
			!ATTLIST sound
			!ELEMENT video - 0 (EMPTY) 
			!ATTLIST video
!ELEMENT ref - - (bibl | Web_site | disk) 
			!ELEMENT bibl - - (author, title) 

See "div" below.

!ELEMENT div - - (p)* 

'ISO 8632:1987//NOTATION Computer Graphics Metafile//EN' 
'iso dis 10918//NOTATION JPEG Graphics Format//EN' 
'-//Aldus Corporation//NOTATION Tagged Image File Format//EN' 
'-//Compuserve Information Service//NOTATION Graphics Interchange Format//EN' 
'ISO 8879:1986//NOTATION Standard Generalized Markup Language//EN' 

!NOTATION  wav  PUBLIC              
!NOTATION  video  PUBLIC            

Controlled vocabulary for the Stearns Database of Musical Instruments

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