Related Visual Documentation

DEFINITION

The identification and description of images that provide information about a work of art. These visual documents are distinguished from related works of art, which are recorded in RELATED WORKS.

SUBCATEGORIES

RELATIONSHIP TYPE
IMAGE TYPE
IMAGE MEASUREMENTS
COLOR
VIEW
INDEXING TERMS
IMAGE OWNERSHIP
OWNER'S NAME
OWNER'S NUMBERS
IMAGE SOURCE
NAME
NUMBER
COPYRIGHT/RESTRICTIONS
REMARKS
CITATIONS

DISCUSSION

This category records reproductions and facsimiles of the object being described, including photographs, negatives, microfiche, videotape, and digital images.

Information about a work of art is often conveyed in images of it, made for the purposes of reproduction, study, examination, documentation, or teaching. Visual documentation about a work of art may include historic photographs, conservation photographs, or installation photographs from a particular exhibition.

Information about related visual documentation provides references to available reproductions or documentary images of a work of art. Certain types of visual documentation, such as historic photographs, may enhance understanding of a work of art, identify its subject, or establish facts about its creation and history.

An image may be known only through a reproduction of it. For example, the photograph of Lisette Model at the Lee Friedlander Exhibition, Galérie Zabriskie, Paris, 1978, is reproduced as figure 133 in Ann Thomas, Lisette Model (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1990), with the credit "Owner Unknown."

A reproduction may itself be considered a work of art, e.g., Eugène Atget's photographs of the art and architecture of Paris, or Alison Frantz's photographs of ancient Greek sites and artifacts. Such works should be described separately -- or additionally -- in the category RELATED WORKS.

Source

Information about a related visual image may be supplied by the owner of the image or may be found in catalog entries and other publications, both scholarly (e.g., monographs, historical surveys) and popular (e.g., newspaper or magazine articles or reviews). Conservators (or conservation documentation files) and other specialists may supply information about specific types of images, such as radiographs.

USES

Images of works of art allow teachers and researchers to bring together, for the sake of comparison, works located in geographically distant places that could never be viewed together in any other way. A study of the creation and dissemination of reproductive images of a work of art makes it possible to assess the reputation of the work over time. Visual documents can also provide additional information (e.g., a photograph can make possible the definitive identification of the subject of a work of art) or a contextual view over time (e.g., aerial views of the Great Sphinx show that the site of the work, which was once desert, is now quite urban).

Information contained in reproductions of a work of art makes it possible to study physical changes in the work over time, identify the condition of a work at a particular time, or determine how the work was housed or displayed in a particular setting. Different views, such as those taken under ultraviolet light or in raking light, reveal particular characteristics of the work, such as underdrawings, and highlight others, such as the use of different media. Photographs of a work before and after it has undergone restoration may enhance understanding of both the treatment and the execution of the work itself.

RELATIONSHIPS

Relationships between the work in question and other works of art, such as preparatory drawings, copies, pendants, or other parts of what was once a larger work, should be indicated in the category RELATED WORKS.

Citations to textual sources that provide information about the work of art in question should be included in the category RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES.

ACCESS

Access to information about visual documentation of a work of art may be achieved through a variety of criteria. For example, a researcher may wish to identify images of a particular artist's work that are of a certain type, or that are related to the work in a certain way, such as photographs of Picasso's Demoiselles d'Avignon taken while the painting was installed in a particular exhibition, or views of a particular work over time (see the Great Sphinx example under USES), to show how the context and/or condition of the work have changed.


Related Visual Documentation - Relationship Type

DEFINITION

The relationship of an image to the work of art being described.

EXAMPLES

conservation image
documentary image
contextual image
historical view
reconstruction
installation image

DISCUSSION

Recording the type of relationship between works of art and their visual documentation provides systematic access to information about the works and their surrogates. Specifying the nature of the relationship between a work of art and its related visual documentation makes it possible to collocate images that have the same relationship to a particular work or group of works, establish sequences and chronologies, and assemble groups of material for further study.

This subcategory contains terms or brief phrases distilled from the analysis of, and comparison between, the work being described and images of it. This information may be speculative, since scholarly opinions on the nature of the relationship between a work and an image of it, or the information found in an image, may differ.

Source

The relationships between works of art and images of them can be deduced from an examination of the work and the image, or extrapolated from documentary evidence about the creation of the image.

USES

The information in this subcategory can be used to collate items with similar relationships to the work being described, establish the history of the work and its appearance over time, and eliminate ambiguities in the relationships between objects and their visual surrogates.

ACCESS

This subcategory should be searchable according to a consistent vocabulary of "types," in order to make it possible, for example, to identify installation photographs of the works of Magritte, or conservation photographs from the restoration of the Sistine Chapel ceiling.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

The use of controlled vocabulary is recommended, such as the AAT (especially the Visual Works and Information Forms hierarchies), ACRL/RBMS Genre Terms, ISO 5127-3: Iconic Documents, ISO 5127-11: Audio-visual Documents, Moving Image Materials, LC Descriptive Terms for Graphic Materials, or Revised Nomenclature.


Related Visual Documentation - Image Type

DEFINITION

The generic identification of the medium of the image.

EXAMPLES

photograph
slide
videotape
X-ray photograph
negative
internegative
albumen print
digital image
duplicate slide

DISCUSSION

Identifying the kind of image makes it possible to evaluate the visual information it provides and how accessible it might be. For example, an X-ray may provide insight into how a work was made, or may reveal changes or pentimenti made during the process of creation. A black-and-white photograph of a performance piece shows one moment of the performance, while a videotape documents the execution of the performance.

USES

The information in this subcategory can be used to identify images of a certain type of a particular work of art, as for example X-ray photographs of Poussin self-portraits in order to study how the artist made technical changes or how the iconography of his own image evolved over time.

One might also want to know that a particular image is a duplicate, implying that the image is of lesser quality than one made directly from the object.

ACCESS

In combination with other search criteria, this access point makes it possible to find images of a particular type, e.g., videotapes of happenings in New York in 1969.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

The use of controlled vocabulary is recommended, such at the AAT, the ACRL/RBMS Genre Terms, ISO 5127-3: Iconic Documents, ISO 5127-11: Audio-visual Documents, Moving Image Materials, LC Descriptive Terms for Graphic Materials, or Revised Nomenclature.


Related Visual Documentationn - Image Measurements

DEFINITION

The applicable measurements of the image, including dimensions and format. (The same subcategories that apply to the measurements of an image of a work in the category MEASUREMENTS are applicable to the measurements of an image in this subcategory.)

EXAMPLES

Dimensions:
8 x 10 inches
35mm, 60 minutes
656K bytes
1024 x 768 pixels

Format:
Beta
JFIF with JPEG compression
TIFF

DISCUSSION

The dimensions and format of the image suggest to the researcher the amount of detail that might be found in the image and how usable it might be. For example, a researcher might not be able to view a Beta videotape because he does not have access to the appropriate equipment. It is important to know that a particular image was made from an 8- by 10-inch negative and not from a 35-mm negative, since the larger negative shows more detail.

USES

A researcher may wish to locate 35-mm slides of a work to illustrate a conference paper, or he or she may wish to find images in digital format (e.g. GIF or TIFF) for study on the computer. A user might want to study a digital image as opposed to a slide or photograph, since in a computer environment an image can be scaled or zoomed.

ACCESS

Recording image measurements makes it possible for researchers to identify images of a size and format that are useful to their work and/or usable on their available equipment, or to group similar images for comparison.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

The use of a controlled vocabulary is recommended, such as the AAT (especially Visual Works and Information Forms hierarchies).


Related Visual Documentation - Color

DEFINITION

The characterization of the chromatic qualities of the image.

EXAMPLES

black-and-white
color
sepia
monochrome
256 shades of gray
24-bit color

DISCUSSION

The identification of the chromatic range of the image indicates the character of the visual information provided by the image. For example, a black-and-white image of a statue will reveal the plastic qualities of the work, while a color slide will provide insight into the surface qualities and tonalities of the work.

USES

The information in this subcategory may be used to select images appropriate for particular research or publication needs.

ACCESS

This subcategory makes it possible, for example, to find color slides of a particular work.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Use of a controlled vocabulary is recommended, such as the AAT.


Related Visual Documentation - View

DEFINITION

The context (lighting, time of day) and/or aspect (position, angle, range, orientation, extent, or portion) of the work of art as depicted in the image.

EXAMPLES

[for Giambologna, Fountain of Oceanus, Boboli Gardens]
view from below in late afternoon sunlight

[for Thomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic]
detail of professor's hand, in raking light

DISCUSSION

A description of the view provided by the image makes it possible to evaluate the nature of the information it contains. For example, a view of the Nike of Samothrace from below may aid in determining how the work was originally intended to be seen. An aerial view of the Acropolis places the remains of the various monuments in their relative context.

The information in this subcategory can also help to differentiate among the various images of a particular work providing additional descriptive details to help precisely identify the object in the image in case of loss or damage, or to study the object when it is unavailable for viewing.

Descriptions of view may vary depending on what is considered to be important about the particular image.

USES

Information on the view provided by a particular image makes it possible to evaluate the kind of visual information the image will provide about the work of art.


Related Visual Documentation - View - Indexing Terms

DEFINITION

Terms that characterize the view of the work provided by the image.

EXAMPLES

raking light
sunset
aerial view
frontal view
interior view
profile
eye-level view

USES

Indexing terms make it possible to easily identify and collocate images of a work, for example, in raking light, or photographs of details of a work.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

The use of a controlled vocabulary is recommended, such as the AAT (especially the Visual Works, Processes and Techniques, Attributes and Properties, and Components hierarchies).


Related Visual Documentation - Image Ownership

DEFINITION

Identification of the owner of a related image and any identification numbers assigned by the owner.

DISCUSSION

The identification of the owner of the image assists researchers who may want to examine an image whose reproduction rights are owned by one organization (e.g., Alinari), but which is owned by and located at another source (e.g., a particular photo study collection or university slide collection).

The information in this subcategory can be used by the owning institution for the purpose of identification when the image is circulated outside the collection. If image data are shared in a networked environment, it identifies the institution that created a particular record and/or provided the digital image that is linked to that record.

The owners specified in this subcategory include educational institutions, commercial image libraries, museums or galleries, as well as cultural heritage or government agencies.


Related Visual Documentation - Image Ownership - Owner's Name

DEFINITION

The identification of the repository, agency, or individual that owns the related image, including its name and location.

EXAMPLES

Frick Art Reference Library, New York, New York, USA
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Bunting Memorial Slide Library, University of New Mexico
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC

DISCUSSION

The identification of the owner by name and location may be used by researchers who wish to see a copy of the image or obtain permission to reproduce it.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

The use of consistent forms of personal and corporate names is recommended; see for example, Canadiana Authorities, LC Name Authorities, ULAN, and Yale British Artists.

An authority of geographic places is recommended for the location of the owner; vocabulary resources include Canadiana Authorities, TGN, LC Name Authorities, and Tozzer Library Headings.


Related Visual Documentation - Image Ownership - Owner's Numbers

DEFINITION

The unique number(s), codes, or other identification assigned to the image by the owner, including accession number, call number, and bar code.

EXAMPLES

009876 [ accession number]
A4S36.2 [call number]
GR/20.tif [ electronic ID number]

DISCUSSION

The owner's number makes it easier to identify the image.


Related Visual Documentation - Image Source

DEFINITION

Identification of the agency, individual, repository, or publication from which the image may be obtained, including a bibliographic citation in the case of copy photography and any numbers assigned to the image by the source.

DISCUSSION

The identification of the source of an image is important for researchers who wish to locate a copy for study or publication.

Source

The information in this subcategory is often attached to the image itself in the form of a label or caption, or may be found in catalogs of image collections. Visual resources collections systematically record the source of an image, whether it is a commercial vendor or a reference to a publication where an image is reproduced.

USES

This information is necessary for locating images for purposes of study or publication.


Related Visual Documentation - Image Source - Name

DEFINITION

The name and location of the agency, individual, or repository from which the image may be obtained, including a bibliographic citation in the case of copy photography.

EXAMPLES

Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, Austria
Yan Photo Reportage, Toulouse, France
Whitaker Studios, Richmond, Virginia, USA
Scala, Florence, Italy
Saskia Ltd. Cultural Documentation, Portland, Oregon, USA
Alinari, Florence, Italy
Bildarchiv Foto Marburg, Marburg, Germany
Service Photographique Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, France
Gimbutas, Maria, The Language of the Goddess (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1989)

DISCUSSION

The name and location of the image source are important for researchers who wish to locate and acquire a particular image. Tracking image sources provides a point of reference for images that are available at a specific institution.

The sources in this subcategory may include commercial sources (e.g., Saskia, Rosenthal, Digital Collections, Inc.), bibliographic sources (in the case of copy photography), or vendors of digital images.


Related Visual Documentation - Image Source - Number

DEFINITION

The unique number(s), codes, or other identification assigned to the image by the source from which the image may be obtained.

EXAMPLES

no. 095
Fir-890-781
ITA-3j-4560-126
plate 5

DISCUSSION

The number of the image, together with the name of the image source, provides an identification for the image, and is important for locating and/or ordering copies of it.

Source

The number often appears on or with the image itself in the form of a label or caption, for example, or may be found in catalogs or other published sources.


Related Visual Documentation - Copyright/Restrictions

DEFINITION

Identification of the copyright holder by name, location, and date of copyright, and a statement of any restrictions on the use or dissemination of the image.

EXAMPLES

©Smithsonian Institution
©1992 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
66.304 1/92

Sandak, Imprint of Macmillan Publishing Company, 866 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10022. "Sandak slides are to be used via normal classroom of auditorium projection for educational purposes only. They may not be duplicated or reproduced in any medium, electronic or other. Any other use requires written permission from the appropriate rights holders."

DISCUSSION

This subcategory explicitly identifies the holder of the copyright to an image and what restrictions, if any, there are on its use for study, teaching, or publication.


Related Visual Documentation - Remarks

DEFINITION

Comments on, or explanation of, the relationship of the related visual documentation to the work being described.


Related Visual Documentation - Citations

DEFINITION

Reference to a published or unpublished source for the information in RELATED VISUAL DOCUMENTATION.