Citations to sources of textual information related to the work of art being described, including archival documents, unpublished manuscripts, and published bibliographic materials, and references to verbal opinions expressed by scholars or subject experts.
All written or verbal sources of information about the work are recorded in the subcategories of RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES, along with references to materials consulted in electronic form, such as databases. There are many types of related textual documents: those consulted to find the information included in the description of the work, such as a reference work like Wittkower's Art and Architecture in Italy 1600-1750; those that cite or discuss the work being described, such as the Barberini Inventory of 1671, or an exhibition catalog; and textual works that included original works of art as illustrations, such as A.A. Milne's Winnie the Pooh books, illustrated by E.H. Shepard.
Artists may also re-use texts, or incorporate new textual materials into their works. Examples of this type of work include the "quotations" from comic books in Roy Lichtenstein's paintings; Hamish Fulton's and Richard Long's use, in their photo works, of phrases from "found" texts and the diaries and notes they make during their walks; or Marlene Creates's incorporation in her installations of handwritten texts, maps, and drawings by the subjects interviewed for her series The Distance Between Two Points is Measured in Memories: 1986-1988 and Places of Presence: Newfoundland Kin and Ancestral Land: 1989-1991.
Citations establish the credibility of the information recorded about the object by making it possible to retrace the arguments used to construct an interpretation of the object and its history, making it possible to prove or disprove hypotheses about an object, according to evidence found in or deduced from primary or secondary sources.
Recording all sources of information helps to provide as complete a record as possible for the object, on the basis of its appearance, citation, or discussion in published documentary sources. Citations also provide a record of the sources consulted during the process of describing the object.
Citations link a work of art to any textual work that may have inspired it, and which may be incorporated into it. They also ensure that the relationship between a work of art and the published work that included it is maintained.
Citations are derived directly from the source consulted (especially for published sources), or from bibliographic databases in which these are cataloged.
Citations to published or unpublished documents appear as subcategories throughout the categories to document or substantiate specific facts or interpretations. The RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES category may be used to provide a framework wherever CITATIONS are invoked. Alternatively, brief citations could be used throughout the categories, and full citations given in this category.
The cumulative history of the ideas, thoughts, and judgments expressed in these sources should be indicated in the category CRITICAL RESPONSES.
Individually, citations serve to substantiate specific facts or assertions included in the description of the object, as well as diverse opinions and former attributions that have been proved erroneous.
Cumulatively, a bibliography of sources provides the framework of documentation of the object in a manner that allows researchers to track down and reassess the documentary evidence, in order to formulate different interpretations. This set of sources can also indicate directions for future research.
Related textual references also establish the publication history of the work.
Citations should be accessible as a coherent, continuous narrative in a format similar to published bibliographies. They should also be indexed by the primary or secondary nature of the source, in order to make it possible to identify all records that cite original documents; by the type of document cited (especially useful for primary documents); and by specific elements of the citation, making it possible to identify places where a specific individual, published work or document was cited. This is particularly useful for assessing the impact and dissemination of scholarship.
Bibliographic information that uniquely and unambiguously identifies the source consulted.
This subcategory supplies a coherent citation of textual reference. A citation allows researchers to identify the textual reference cited and distinguishes it from other similar textual references.
Reference to published sources should be recorded as standardized bibliographic citations, formulated according to published guidelines for scholarly disciplines, including page numbers, figure numbers, or catalog numbers.
For unpublished sources, a citation may include the title and author if known, as well as the location of the document, the identifying number assigned to an archival group within an institution, the name of the holding institution, and a page or folio number.
For published sources, information is often taken directly from the item itself, or from bibliographic databases, such as the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) or on-line catalogs.
Documents are often cited according to the requirements of the individual repository, including such information as credit line and manuscript or reference number. Citations should be standardized according to conventions and style manuals that vary by discipline (e.g., MLA Handbook, Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, The Chicago Manual of Style).In order to provide access to object/works by published scholarship, it is necessary to index the information in the citation. Citations can also be stored in an authority. "The basic rules of citation for databases are the same as for any bibliographic work: as a minimum you need to state:
Citations can be stored in an authority. All citations should be formulated according to a standard style manual.
The generic group of materials of which the cited document or source is a specific example.
Classifying a document by type makes it possible to distinguish among the various kinds of sources associated with the object description.
The use of a controlled vocabulary is recommended, such as the AAT (especially Information Forms hierarchy), ACRL/RBMS Genre Terms, ISO 5127-3: Iconic Documents, ISO 5127-1: Documentation and Information, LC Descriptive Terms for Graphic Materials, or Revised Nomenclature.
Identification of those texts in which direct references to the work of art appear.
EXAMPLESWittkower 1967; p. 131
Identifying the places where a work of art is cited builds a cumulative record of its mention in documents and published sources. It also makes it possible to distinguish those sources used to construct the object description from those that cite the object, but may not have been consulted.
Identification of the texts in which the work of art has been illustrated.
EXAMPLESWittkower 1967; p. 131
Recording whether a work of art is illustrated in a related textual reference provides convenient access to illustrations of it.
The number assigned to a work of art within a textual document.
Object numbers in this category should be drawn exclusively from the textual reference itself. These numbers need not have any bearing on other numbers that are used to identify a work of art. Where a connection is known, however, it should be noted.
Comments on, or explanation of, the relationship of the cited source to the object being described.
1 "Citing Datafiles," ESRC Data Archive Bulletin, no. 48 (Summer 1991): pp. 1-2.