Exhibition/Loan History

DEFINITION

A historical record of the public display of a work of art, including its installation in a gallery, inclusion in a special exhibition, and any loan during which the work was on public view, even if not a part of a formal exhibition.

SUBCATEGORIES

TITLE OR NAME
CURATOR
ORGANIZER
SPONSOR
VENUE
NAME
PLACE
TYPE
DATES
OBJECT NUMBER
REMARKS
CITATIONS

DISCUSSION

This category documents the occasions when a work was loaned or exhibited outside its normal context. This includes those times when a work is part of a special exhibition within its repository or when it is loaned for exhibition purposes. Exhibition history is also used to record the "showing" of contemporary performance pieces, the installation of works, such as sculpture, in public places, the hanging of works in architectural interiors such as churches, and the inclusion of works in shows at commercial galleries.

Each occasion when a work is exhibited or loaned should be documented separately; the subcategories in this category repeat as a group for each subsequent exhibition or loan. Gaps or uncertainties in a work's exhibition or loan history should be indicated.

Information in this category helps researchers by documenting the dates and places a work may have been seen by another artist or collector. Exhibitions may also present the work in interesting historical, thematic, and aesthetic contexts. Exhibition history may help to establish the date of creation for the work by the circumstantial evidence of its public display, and provide additional details about an artist's career, including where he or she exhibited. An exhibition or loan history also makes it possible to identify when works were not in their usual location, such as when the Solomon R. Guggenheim Collection was traveling while the museum was undergoing renovations.

Source

Exhibition history may be found in the repository's curatorial and registrarial files, permanent collection catalogs, catalogues raisonnés, auction catalogs, sale catalogs, and exhibition catalogs. Exhibition catalog indices may provide cumulative records; examples include the National Academy of Design Exhibition Record 1826-1860 (New York, 1943) and 1861-1900 (New York, 1973), The Boston Athenaeum Art Exhibition Index 1827-1874 (Boston, 1980), or the National Museum of American Art's Index to American Art Exhibition Catalogs from the Beginning Through the 1976 Centennial Year (Boston, 1986). Published references to an exhibition may also be found in contemporary news articles.

RELATIONSHIPS

The exhibition catalogs, publications of symposia held in conjunction with the exhibition, and published reviews should be recorded in RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES.

Information about the provenance or ownership of a work which are derived from the exhibition record should be detailed in OWNERSHIP/COLLECTING HISTORY.

The title under which the object/work was exhibited should be recorded in TITLES OR NAMES category. The EXHIBITION/LOAN HISTORY - REMARKS subcategory can be used to link the title to the object in the context of a particular exhibition.

USES

A history of the public display of a work of art is of interest to researchers seeking to establish the whereabouts of a work in a given time period. It provides insight into how a work might have influenced another artist, a collector, or a researcher. This information also helps to establish the activities of the artist, documenting where he exhibited or sold his works, how his work changed over time, and how he was known in a community during a time period.

Exhibition history also makes it possible to study patronage by individual collectors, dealers, and civic institutions that collect and exhibit works of art. Exhibition history may also be used to date a work, establish the titles by which it has been known, or document its ownership at a particular time.

The information in this category can be used to reassemble or recreate a particular historical exhibition or display, such as the Austellung "Entartete Kunst" held at the Archäologischer Institut, Munich, in 1937. [1]

ACCESS

Researchers will wish to identify an exhibition by its title, the venues at which it was shown, the location of these venues, the sponsoring organization, and the date of exhibition.


Exhibition/Loan History - Title or Name

DEFINITION

The title or name of the exhibition as formulated by the organizing institution.

EXAMPLES

Michelangelo Draftsman
Circa 1492: The Age of Exploration
Homecoming: William H. Johnson and Afro-America, 1938-1946
First Annual Exhibition at the Louisville Museum, and the Gallery of the Fine Arts
The Earl and Countess of Arundel: Renaissance Collectors
Internationale Bauausstellung Berlin 1987
"Degenerate Art": The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany
Salon des Indépendants of 1889 [Figure 17]
Royal Academy Salon of 1785

DISCUSSION

A name or title identifies a specific exhibition. It may also provide an indication of the general subject or theme of the exhibition.

All variant titles by which the exhibition was known should be recorded. The title or name of an exhibition may be unknown.

ACCESS

Important information in the EXHIBITION/LOAN HISTORY - TITLE OR NAME should be recorded and made accessible in other subcategories.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Titles should be recorded verbatim as found in published and unpublished sources.


Exhibition/Loan History - Curator

DEFINITION

The name or names of those responsible for the intellectual content of the exhibition, including the selection of works and their interpretation.

EXAMPLES

Diane DeGrazia
Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer
Michael Hirst
David Jaffé

DISCUSSION

This subcategory identifies the person or persons who planned and organized the exhibition. When more than one individual was involved in curating an exhibition, it may be possible to assign the majority of the responsibility to one person, with the others as contributing curators. In some cases it may not be possible to identify the curator of an exhibition definitively.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

The use of consistent forms of personal and corporate names is recommended; see for example, LC Name Authorities or Canadiana Authorities.


Exhibition/Loan History - Organizer

DEFINITION

The name and location of the person or agency responsible for the exhibition or loan.

EXAMPLES

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA
Arts Council of Great Britain, London, England
Casa Buonarroti, Florence, Italy
Royal Academy, Paris, France

DISCUSSION

This subcategory identifies the individual or organization that planned and organized the exhibition. Multiple organizers may be responsible for the exhibition. It may not be possible to identify the organizer of an exhibition.

ACCESS

It is necessary to search for the organizer(s) by variant names. The name of the organization may have changed since the time of the exhibition; it may, however, no longer exist, or may have merged with another organization. The organization may have relocated to another city or address. The organization may be a subsidiary of another organization. Hierarchical relationships should be accommodated.

Since different organizers may have the same name, it is also important to record the geographic location of the organizer. The location may be stored in the authority record for the organizer.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

The use of consistent forms of personal and corporate names is recommended; see for example, LC Name Authorities or Canadiana Authorities.

The use of an authority file of geographic places is recommended for the location of the organizer; vocabulary resources include TGN, LC Name Authorities, and Canadiana Authorities.


Exhibition/Loan History - Sponsor

DEFINITION

The name of any individual, corporation, foundation, or funding body that provided financial assistance to an exhibition or loan.

EXAMPLES

Herbert M. Milligan
Louis XVI
J. Paul Getty Museum
National Endowment for the Arts
Federal Council on the Arts and Humanities
Fondazione Agnelli
The Canada Council
The Arts Council of Great Britain
Istituto Bancario San Paolo di Torino
The Ford Foundation
IBM

DISCUSSION

Recording the sponsor's name documents the involvement of the monetary sponsors of an exhibition or loan, including individuals, national endowments, foundations, corporations, and other funding bodies.

A single exhibition may have multiple funding sources or sponsors. If the sponsor changes with different venues, this should be recorded. Sponsors of an exhibition may be uncertain or unknown.

ACCESS

It is necessary to search for the person or institution by variant names. The names of funding bodies may have changed over time, may no longer exist, or may have merged with another organization. The organization may have relocated to another city or address. The organization may be a subsidiary of another organization. Hierarchical relationships should be accommodated.

Since different sponsors may have the same name, it is also important to record the geographic location of the sponsor. The location may be stored in the authority record for the sponsor.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

The use of consistent forms of personal and corporate names is recommended; see for example, LC Name Authorities or Canadiana Authorities.

The use of an authority file of geographic places is recommended for the location of the sponsor; vocabulary resources include TGN, LC Name Authorities, and Canadiana Authorities.


Exhibition/Loan History - Venue

DEFINITION

The names and locations where the exhibition or work of art was on public display.

DISCUSSION

Major exhibitions are often shown in many different places. Each venue should be identified by its name, type of venue, and the dates when the exhibition was shown there. This set of subcategories repeats for each venue. An exhibition may be installed simultaneously in different places, such as The Age of Correggio and the Carracci, which was shown in a number of galleries in Bologna. [2]

It may not be certain that an exhibition was shown at a particular venue, or that a particular object was included in the exhibition at all venues.


Exhibition/Loan History - Venue - Name

DEFINITION

The name of the institution, gallery, or other facility where an exhibition took place.

EXAMPLES

Tuileries
National Gallery of Art
Castelli Gallery
National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
Deutsches Architekturmuseum
Musée du Louvre

DISCUSSION

This subcategory identifies specific institutions or galleries that housed a particular exhibition or a work of art. It may not be possible to identify the venues of an exhibition definitively.

ACCESS

It should be possible to search for the institution by variant names. The name of the organization or gallery may have changed since the time of the exhibition. It may no longer exist, or may have merged with another organization. The organization may be a subsidiary of another organization. Hierarchical relationships should be accommodated.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

The use of consistent forms of personal and corporate names is recommended; vocabulary resources include LC Name Authorities, Canadiana Authorities, the British Archaeological Thesaurus, or Tozzer Library Headings.


Exhibition/Loan History - Venue - Place

DEFINITION

The location of the venue where the exhibition was held or the work was shown.

EXAMPLES

Seki, Gifu prefecture, Chubu region, Japan
London, England
California, USA
Corner of Santa Monica and Beverly Boulevards

DISCUSSION

This subcategory identifies the geographic location where the work was displayed. It is usually the location of the institution named in VENUE - NAME; however, works may be displayed outside a repository. For example, a work may be installed on a public street. An installation such as Christo's Running Fence, which went through an area in Northern California, may not be associated with a repository or with a specific city or town.

ACCESS

It is necessary to search for geographic location by variant names. Since different venues may have the same name, it is important to have access to the geographic location in association with the name of the venue. The location may be stored in the authority record for the venue. Since works may be displayed outside a repository, it must also be possible to record a geographic location for the work without an associated VENUE - NAME.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

The use of an authority file of geographic places is recommended; vocabulary resources include TGN, LC Name Authorities, and Canadiana Authorities.


Exhibition/Loan History - Venue - Type

DEFINITION

The kind of venue at which an exhibition was shown.

EXAMPLES

museum
art gallery
sculpture garden
park
hotel
studio
warehouse
bank
public space
restaurant

DISCUSSION

This subcategory specifies the type of space within which an exhibition was shown, including terms that describe the main activities or roles of the institution named in VENUE - NAME.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

The use of a controlled vocabulary is recommended, such as the AAT Settlements and Landscapes, Single Built Works, Open Spaces and Site Elements hierarchies.


Exhibition/Loan History - Venue - Dates

DEFINITION

The date or range of dates when the work was on exhibition at a particular venue.

EXAMPLES

1801-1812
1993
9 October-11 December 1988
before May 1970
12th century
Christmas season, 1432
Autumn 1956

DISCUSSION

These dates document when a work was exhibited at a particular venue. Usually, a range of dates or a single date will be indicated in this subcategory. Since it may not be possible to identify exactly when a work was on display, various levels of certainty should be accommodated. Sources may only date an installation to the "eighteenth century," for example. The dates an object was in an exhibit may vary from the published dates for the exhibition, as when the run of the exhibition was extended or the object was not on view for the entire length of the show.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Dates can be recorded in two ways: as text (illustrated in the above examples), and as two integers indicating the beginning of a date span and the end of a date span (dates BCE can be stored as negative values). Rigidly controlled format is required to allow retrieval. The use of date guidelines is recommended, such as the AAT Date Guidelines or ISO 8601: Dates & Times.


Exhibition/Loan History - Object Number

DEFINITION

The number assigned to a work within the context of an exhibition or loan.

EXAMPLES

item 174
plate 23
VIII
DR 1989:0001 accession number
q60 collector's number

DISCUSSION

This subcategory records those numbers specifically assigned to a work within the context of an exhibition or loan. Objects are often identified by numbers or alphanumeric codes in an exhibition to make it easier to identify them. These identifiers may be the same as the repository normally uses to identify the object, as recorded in CURRENT LOCATION - REPOSITORY NUMBERS.


Exhibition/Loan History - Remarks

DEFINITION

Additional notes or comments about the exhibition or loan of a work or object. These may include interpretations of evidence or remarks about the source of information.


Exhibition/Loan History - Citations

DEFINITION

All references to bibliographic sources, personal opinions, or unpublished documents that provide the basis for the information recorded in EXHIBITION/LOAN HISTORY.

__________

ENDNOTES

1 See Mario-Andreas von Lüttichau, "Entartete Kunst, Munich 1937 - A Reconstruction," in Stephanie Barron et al., "Degenerate Art": The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany (Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1991), pp. 45-103.

2 The Age of Correggio and the Carracci: Emilian Painting in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, tr. Robert Erich Wolf et al. (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1986): catalog of an exhibition held at the Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna, 10 September-9 November 1986; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 19 December 1986-16 February 1987; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 26 March-24 May 1987.