Herman, Edward S. and Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing consent:
the political economy of mass media (New York: Pantheon Books, 1988).
Chapter One: "A Propaganda Model"
- The First Filter: Size, Ownership, Profit Orientation
of the Mass Media
Scale of production, wealth of owners, stock market basis of bottom line,
corporate (mainstream) community on boards, social links, outside director
affiliations (corp execs, lawyers, bankers, consultants, diversified holdings
(beyond media), ties with government (licenses, franchises, political ties,
- The Second Filter: The Advertising License to Do Business
Modest means of working-class/radical press audience makes them less attractive
to advertisers, along with political discrimination by adverstisers. Gradually
increasing advertising time, increasing marginalization and elimination of
significant public-affairs content.
- The Third Filter: Sourcing Mass-Media News Government
and corporate sources for raw news material.
- The Fourth Filter: Flak and the Enforcers
- Anticommunism as a Control Mechanism--Antiterrorism as
a control mechanism?
Dichotomization and Propaganda Campaigns