Executive  summaryChapter1Chapter2Chapter3
Chapter4Chapter5Chapter6Chapter7Home

APPENDIX 6C—FOCUS GROUP PARTICIPANTS: QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES AND BRIEF
SUMMARY OF OVERALL CONCERNS

Participant A, Group 1

Profile: Male, 51-65 years old. Art History, taught 21 years, Full Professor.

Image use:

  • 50 terms using images
  • 2 terms with digital images
  • 0 terms with MESL images
  • 200 digital images per course
  • Highest % of digital images used in any one term: 100%

Types of digital image use: He has used digital images in place of slides.

Barriers listed:

  • Image selection
  • Image quality
  • Copyright issues
  • Time required

Other barriers written in:

  • Some concern with continuing availability of my digital collection in years to come (tech changes).

Overall concerns: He would like an image analysis/manipulation software tool that students could use to better understand the composition of a work of art. He mentioned that he manipulates images to illustrate compositional points, but he would like his students to take advantage of such a tool.

Participant B, Group 1

Profile: Male, 36-50 years old. Art History, taught 24 years, Full Professor.

Image use:

  • All terms using images
  • 1 term with digital images
  • 1 term with MESL images
  • 15 digital images per course
  • Highest % of digital images used in any one term: 1%

Types of digital image use: He has used digital images for study photos to supplement text, and as images for a "take home" quiz.

Barriers and their scores:

  • Image selection (3) wrote in "really 10"
  • Image quality (3) wrote in "really 10"
  • Software tools and templates to manage images (3) wrote in "really 10"
  • Delivery speed to display images (3) wrote in "really 10"
  • Technical support and training (3)
  • Equipped classrooms and labs (3)
  • Copyright issues (1)
  • Time required (1)

Overall concerns: He was one of two participants who taught with MESL images. He discussed several barriers he listed on the questionnaire: image quality, technical support and training, equipped classrooms and labs, and time required. He stated image quality is a serious issue for his colleagues. He mentioned that classrooms at his institution were not yet equipped for projection of digital images since the equipment was being refurbished. He was concerned with basing funds on specially funded programs, which can leave projects unfinished when the funds run out.

Participant C, Group 1

Profile: Female, age not given, Fine Art-Printmaking (Studio Art), taught 30 years, Full Professor.

Types of digital image use: She generated digital images and her students used them to create Web sites.

Barriers and their scores:

She did not allocate points to any barriers.

Overall attitude: She raised the issue of the importance of metadata in the context of having descriptive information on the actual artwork (e.g., the medium is acrylic on canvas). She also discussed the barriers of tools and equipment.

Participant D, Group 1

Profile: Female, 51-60, History of Art, taught 26 years, Full Professor.

Image use:

All terms using images

6-7 terms with digital images

4 terms with MESL images

DI per course varies

Highest % of digital images used in any one term: 15%

Types of digital image use: She has used digital images for individual projects, lectures, and discussion in sections.

Barriers and their scores:

  • Image selection (5)
  • Software tools and templates to manage images (5)
  • Copyright issues (5)
  • Cost of acquiring or using images (5)

Overall concerns: She discussed all the barriers listed on her questionnaire except the cost of acquiring or using images (this topic was not discussed specifically). She asserted the need for tools: to make your own collection, push images around, and make comparisons. She raised the issue of the university not valuing this work and the dilemma that you must be tenured to do it. This launched an intense discussion.

Participant E, Group 1

Profile: Female, 51-65, Art History, taught 100 (sic) years, Full Professor.

Image use:

  • 400 (sic) terms using images
  • 4 terms with digital images
  • 0 terms with MESL images
  • 1000 digital images per course
  • Highest % of digital images used in any one term: 100%

Types of digital image use: She did not state what she has used digital images for.

Barriers and their scores:

  • Copyright issues (5)
  • Cost of acquiring or using images (5)
  • Acceptance by other faculty members (5)
  • Time required (5)

Overall concerns: She discussed equipment, cost, technical support, time required, tools, image selection, and image quality as barriers. She suggested hiring students with B.As or M.As in the field who have good technical skills to work with researchers instead of hiring technical support staff with no sympathy or understanding of the subject. She stated that some students are not up to doing doctoral work, but they have a real interest in the field.

Participant F, Group 1

Profile: Male, 36-50 years old. Doesn't teach any longer, taught (Art History) for 20 years. Associate Librarian.

Image use:

  • 18+ terms using images
  • 0 terms with digital images
  • 0 terms with MESL images
  • 0 digital images per course
  • Highest % of digital images used in any one term: 0%

Types of digital image use: He has not used digital images to teach. He did not allocate any points to barriers.

Overall concerns: He discussed the barriers of accessibility for students, equipped classrooms and labs, metadata, and the need for communication throughout the institution to insure the library will be able to provide the resources needed by faculty.

Participant G, Group 1

Profile: Female, 36-50, Computer Art, taught 20 years, Assistant Professor.

Image use:

  • 40 terms using images
  • 20 terms with digital images
  • 0 terms with MESL images
  • DI per course: not given
  • Highest % of digital images used in any one term: not given

Types of digital image use: She has used digital images in place of slides, as examples of how the Web works, as source material for studio work.

Barriers and their scores:

  • Image selection (5)
  • Image quality (5)
  • Software tools and templates to manage images (4)
  • Copyright issues (3)
  • Delivery speed to display images (2)
  • Cost of acquiring or using images (1)

Other barriers written in:

  • "Appropriation is essential issue-Studio."
  • "People will appropriate, need to be able to do this."

Overall concerns: She didn't discuss the barriers she listed on her questionnaire in depth, but added to the group's discussion of barriers such as equipment, equipped classrooms, accessibility for students, technical support and training. She was concerned with the relationship between technical support staff and faculty. She perceived a separation between academic computing professionals and the technical support staff members who report to them, and faculty who are dependent on them for assistance.

Participant H, Group 1

Profile: Female, age not given, Computer Animation, taught 16 years, Associate Professor.

Image use:

  • All terms using images
  • All terms with digital images
  • 0 terms with MESL images
  • DI per course: many
  • Highest % of digital images used in any one term: 75%

Types of digital image use: She has used digital images for demonstrations, critiques, and lectures.

  • Barriers and their scores:
  • Software tools and templates to manage images (5)
  • Delivery speed to display images (5)
  • Copyright issues (5)
  • Time required (5)

Overall concerns: The major barriers for her were speed, storage space, and rights. She is on the computer committee for her college in charge of purchasing computer equipment and had an understanding of how computers were used at her school (different rules for different labs). She discussed two barriers from her questionnaire in particular: delivery speed to display images and time required. She participated in the discussion of accessibility for students, equipment, image selection, and recognition from the university. She raised the issue of release time.

Participant I, Group 1

Profile: Male, 36-50 years old. Computer Art (Studio), taught many years, Adjunct Professor.

Image use:

  • 10 terms using images
  • 10 terms with digital images
  • 0 terms with MESL images
  • 100's of digital images per course
  • Highest % of digital images used in any one term: 100%

Types of digital image use: He has used digital images for starting and ending points for student work, demonstrations, and history.

Barriers and their scores:

  • Image selection (6)
  • Equipped classrooms and labs (6)
  • Delivery speed to display images (6)

Other barriers written in:

  • Lack of images originally created for cyber
  • Web browser constraints: differences in performance, differences in resolutions, spatial, color.

Overall concerns: His background was in computers before he began teaching computer art. In addition to the barriers listed on his questionnaire, he participated in the discussion of barriers including equipment, image quality, metadata, recognition from the university, technical support, tools, and training. He spoke about recognizing the intellectual value of faculty's ideas, effort, and research during the discussion on metadata.

Participant J, Group 2

Profile: Female, age 51-65, Art History and Multimedia, taught 30 years, Full Professor.

Image use:

  • 60 terms using images
  • 10 terms with digital images
  • 0 terms with MESL images
  • 100-1400 digital images per course
  • Highest % of digital images used in any one term: 100%.

Types of digital image use: She has used digital images to teach a survey course in Art History and has used them with Director and other multimedia programs.

Barriers and their scores:

  • Cost of acquiring or using images (5)
  • Time required (3)
  • Copyright issues (3)
  • Delivery speed to display images (3)
  • Technical support and training (2)

    Equipped classrooms and labs (2)

Other barriers written in:

  • critical mass of images

Overall concerns: She discussed all the barriers she allocated points to in the questionnaire. She described a model for a colleague-training program at her institution that she is taking part in next year. She is one of four faculty members at her university who will train their colleagues in exchange for working half time.

Participant K, Group 2

Profile: Male, more than 65 years old. Studio Art, taught 40 years, Full Professor.

Image use:

  • 40 terms using images
  • 8 terms with digital images
  • 0 terms with MESL images
  • 200 digital images per course
  • Highest % of digital images used in any one term: 100-10%

Types of digital image use: He has used digital images of maps, student work, and other art resources both as images for teaching and on Web sites as imagemaps.

Barriers and their scores:

  • image quality (5)
  • delivery speed to display images (5)
  • technical support and training (3)
  • equipped classrooms and labs (2)
  • image selection (2)
  • copyright issues (2)
  • accessibility for students (1)

Overall concerns: He discussed two of the barriers he listed on his questionnaire at length. These were image quality and technical support. He was a seasoned user with an interest in technical issues.

Participant L, Group 2

Profile: Female, age not given, Art History and Multimedia, taught 20+ years, Associate Professor.

Image use:

  • 40+ terms using images
  • 12 terms with digital images
  • 0 terms with MESL images
  • Digital images used per course not given
  • Highest % of digital images used in any one term: 50%

Types of digital image use: She has used digital images to create Art History education software.

Barriers and their scores:

  • Image selection (4)
  • Equipped classrooms and labs (3) wrote in: including software
  • Cost of acquiring or using images (2)
  • Time required (2)
  • Image quality (1)
  • Copyright issues (1)
  • Acceptance by other faculty members (1)
  • Other barriers written in:
  • Recognition for expertise & pioneering work from university (6)
  • Working with many different people to accomplish teaching goal.

Overall concerns: Concerned with recognition by universities and the value they place on her work. She viewed digital technology as enabling new ways of thinking and reaching a broader audience. She discussed all the barriers listed on her questionnaire. She was particularly concerned with the two barriers she wrote in which dealt with recognition from the university and collaboration between departments. As an early adopter, she had experience with products becoming obsolete.

Back to Chapter 6

 


The Cost of Digital Image Distribution:
The Social and Economic Implications of
the Production, Distribution, and Usage of Image Data

By Howard Besser & Robert Yamashita
http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Imaging/Databases/1998mellon